Smart, Cost-Effective, Treasured for Generations.

Hackberry

Celtis occidentalis - Other Name: Sugarberry
 
 

Stain Selector

Clear

Light

Medium

Dark

 

Where It Grows

Eastern U.S. Average tree height is 130 feet.

Main uses

Furniture and kitchen cabinets, millwork, doors and mouldings.

Relative Abundance

Together, aspen, basswood, cottonwood, elm, gum, hackberry, sassafras, sycamore and willow represent 12.5 percent of commercially available U.S. hardwoods.

Did You Know?

Historically, most Southern church pews were made of hackberry. It often is used for farm implements as well as crates and boxes.

General Description

Hackberry is closely related to sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) and is a member of the elm family. There is little difference between sapwood and heartwood which is yellowish grey to light brown with yellow streaks. The wood is very susceptible to blue staining before and after kiln drying and has irregular grain, occasionally straight and sometimes interlocked, with a fine uniform texture.

Working Properties

The wood planes and turns well and is intermediate in its ability to hold nails and screws, and stains satisfactorily. Hackberry dries readily with minimal degrade. It has a fairly high shrinkage and is most suitable in cut stock (small/short pieces).

Physical Properties

Hackberry is moderately hard, heavy and has medium bending strength, high shock resistance but is low in stiffness. It has a good steam-bending classification.

Availability

Reasonable.

Working Properties


Machining

 
 
 
 
 
Poor
Good

Nailing

 
 
 
 
 
Poor
Good

Screwing

 
 
 
 
 
Poor
Good

Gluing

 
 
 
 
 
Poor
Good

Finishing

 
 
 
 
 
Poor
Good
 

Strength and Mechanical Properties (inch-pound)a


 

Static Bending

Moisture Content

Specific Gravity (b)

Modulus of Rupture
(lbf/in2)

Modulus of Elasticity (c)
(106 lbf/in2)

Work to Maximum Load
(in-lbf/in3)

Green-12% 0.49-0.53 6,500-11,000 0.95-1.19 12.8-14.5

Impact Bending
to Grain
(in)

Compression
Parallel to Grain
(lbf/in2)

Compression
Perpendicular to Grain
(lbf/in2)

Shear
Parallel to Grain
(lbf/in2)

Tension
Perpendicular to Grain
(lbf/in2)

Side Hardness
(lbf)

43-48 2,650-5,440 400-890 1.070-1,590 580-630 700-880

a) Results of tests on small clear specimens in the green and air-dried conditions. Definition of properties; impact bending is height of drop that causes complete failure, using 0.71-kg (50 lb.) hammer; compression parallel to grain is also called maximum crushing strength; compression perpendicular to grain is fiber stress at proportional limit; shear is maximum shearing strength; tension is maximum tensile strength; and side hardness is hardness measured when load is perpendicular to grain.

b) Specific gravity is based on weight when ovendry and volume when green or at 12% moisture content

c) Modulus of elasticity measured from a simply supported, center-loaded beam, on a span depth ratio of 14/1. To correct for shear reflection, the modulus can be increased by 10%.